Database Administrator Security and Privileges

To perform the administrative tasks of an Oracle Database DBA, you need specific privileges within the database and possibly in the operating system of the server on which the database runs. Access to a database administrator's account should be tightly controlled.

This section contains the following topics:
  • ·         The Database Administrator's Operating System Account
  •        Administrative User Accounts

 The Database Administrator's Operating System Account

To perform many of the administrative duties for a database, you must be able to execute operating system commands. Depending on the operating system on which Oracle Database is running, you might need an operating system account or ID to gain access to the operating system. If so, your operating system account might require operating system privileges or access rights that other database users do not require (for example, to perform Oracle Database software installation). Although you do not need the Oracle Database files to be stored in your account, you should have access to them.

Administrative User Accounts

Two administrative user accounts are automatically created when Oracle Database is installed:
  • SYS (default password: CHANGE_ON_INSTALL)
  • SYSTEM (default password: MANAGER)


When you create an Oracle Database, the user SYS is automatically created and granted the DBA role. All of the base tables and views for the database data dictionary are stored in the schema SYS. These base tables and views are critical for the operation of Oracle Database. To maintain the integrity of the data dictionary, tables in the SYS schema are manipulated only by the database. They should never be modified by any user or database administrator, and no one should create any tables in the schema of user SYS. (However, you can change the storage parameters of the data dictionary settings if necessary.) Ensure that most database users are never able to connect to Oracle Database using the SYS account.


When you create an Oracle Database, the user SYSTEM is also automatically created and granted the DBA role. The SYSTEM username is used to create additional tables and views that display administrative information, and internal tables and views used by various Oracle Database options and tools. Never use the SYSTEM schema to store tables of interest to non-administrative users.

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