Shutting Down Oracle Database

To initiate database shutdown, use the SQL*Plus SHUTDOWN command. Control is not returned to the session that initiates a database shutdown until shutdown is complete. The shutdown command comes in many forms.  Oracle has three shutdown modes:

* Normal (default) - waits for in-flight work to complete

* Immediate - terminates all sessions and does a rollback on all

* Abort - aborts all sessions, leaving current DML in need of rollback, de-allocates the SGA and terminates the background processes.

The "normal" and "immediate" modes can take a long time and many Oracle DBA's ensure a swift clean shutdown this way, aborting the sessions, re-starting to allow warmstart rollback of the aborted transactions, and a shutdown immediate to close cleanly:

SQL> shutdown abort

SQL> startup

SQL> shutdown immediate

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