Database Buffer Cache

Database Buffer cache is one of the most important components of System Global Area (SGA). Database Buffer Cache is the place where data blocks are copied from datafiles to perform SQL operations. Buffer Cache is shared memory structure and it is concurrently accessed by all server processes. The buffers in the cache are organized in two lists: the write list and the least recently used (LRU) list.
The write list holds dirty buffers, which contain data that has been modified but has not yet been written to disk.

The LRU list holds pinned buffers,clean, free and dirty buffers that have not yet been moved to the write list. Free buffers do not contain any useful data and are available for use. Pinned buffers are currently being accessed
When an Oracle process accesses a buffer, the process moves the buffer to the most recently used (MRU) end of the LRU list. As more buffers are continually moved to the MRU end of the LRU list, dirty buffers age toward the LRU end of the LRU list. When oracle server process requires a specific data block, it first searches it in Buffer cache. If it finds required block, it is directly accessed and this event is known as Cache Hit. If searching in Buffer cache fails then it is read from datafile on the disk and the event is called Cache Miss. If the required block is not found in Buffer cache then process needs a free buffer to read data from disk. It starts search for free buffer from least recently used end of LRU list. In process of searching, if user process finds dirty block in LRU list it shifts them to Write List. If the process can not find free buffers until certain amount of time then process signals DBWn process to write dirty buffers to disks.
When the user process is performing a full table scan, it reads the blocks of the table into buffers and puts them on the LRU end (instead of the MRU end) of the LRU list. This is because a fully scanned table usually is needed only briefly, so the blocks should be moved out quickly to leave more frequently used blocks in the cache.

Size of the Database Buffer Cache :- 

Oracle allows different block size for different tablespaces. A standard block size is defined in DB_BLOCK_SIZE initialization parameter . System tablespace uses standard block size. DB_CACHE_SIZE parameter is used to defiane size for Database buffer cache.
you can also set the size for two additional buffer pools, KEEP and RECYCLE, by setting DB_KEEP_CACHE_SIZE and DB_RECYCLE_CACHE_SIZE. These three parameters are independent of one another.

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